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A co-localized T2 weighted turbo spin echo scan was acquired with in-plane resolution of 0. Unconstrained probabilistic tractography was performed using the PICo software package Parker and Alexandersampling the orientation of probability density functions PDFs which was generated using constrained spherical deconvolution Tournier et al. Step size was set to 0. An example of how the Biswal KF-3802 of interest was computed for the tractography and functional connectivity analysis.

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A single whole-brain probabilistic map was generated for each of the 43 ROIs for each participant. Probability maps were masked with each ROI Biswal KF-3802 the maximum connectivity value ranging from 0 to 20, was extracted. Thereby, we obtained a single probability estimate of a pathway between each pair of regions. These values were placed into an individual-specific matrix.

The matrix contained two probability estimates for each pair of regions because tracking was performed in both directions e. We combined these two probability estimates to form a single probability estimate for each pair of regions and for each participant. Then, the connectivity matrices were subjected to a double threshold to ensure that only connections with high probability in the majority of participants were considered. For the first-level individual threshold, following the approach described by Cloutman et al. The resultant group-level streamline-based connectivity matrix was analyzed using a graph-theory approach Rubinov and Sporns To detect modules within the prefrontal, temporal, and parietal structural connectivity, modularity was computed by the Brain Connectivity Toolbox Rubinov and Spornshttp: Modularity is based on the Biswal KF-3802 between the number of edges found within modules and the number of edges predicted to lie within modules if all edges in the network were distributed at random.

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Therefore, this modularity measure quantifies the strength of division of a network into modules. Resting-state fMRI images were acquired in 78 healthy volunteers 57 females; mean age These data have been reported in recent examination of the semantic network Jackson et Biswal KF-3802.

Participants were instructed to keep their eyes Biswal KF-3802 and look at the fixation cross during the scanning. To cover the whole brain without signal dropout around the rostral temporal cortices, a dual-echo fMRI protocol was performed Halai et al. The results from the two echoes were combined using linear summation, previously shown to be optimal Halai et al.

Pre-processing was performed using SPM8. The first two volumes were discarded to allow for magnetic saturation effects.

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Nuisance covariates were regressed out including 24 motion parameters, white matter, CSF and global tissue signal, and also the performance of linear detrending. Biswal KF-3802 24 motion parameters were calculated from the 6 original motion parameters using Volterra expansion Friston et al. Additional covariates were included for outlier time points with Z -score greater than 2. To construct an equivalent network to the tractography network, we defined ROIs using the tractography group results Fig.


Pre-processed images were registered in the toolbox with 43 ROIs. Then we averaged the Z -scores across individuals to obtain a group-level matrix. Finally, the averaged z -score matrix was converted back to correlation values, which resulted in the Biswal KF-3802 association matrix.


The Biswal KF-3802 of the negative correlation have not been understood yet and several studies demonstrated that the negative correlation could be an artifact caused by a global signal regression procedure Giove et al. Thus, in the current study, we constructed the networks for only positive correlations.


The group-level functional connectivity-based matrix was analyzed using the Brain Connectivity Toolbox Rubinov and Spornshttp: The modularity was assessed by the Rubinnov—Sporns algorithm Rubinov and Sporns Because the modularity algorithm is heuristic and produces minimally varied partitions from run to run, iterations were run to obtain the optimal partitions in the network. To test the statistical significance of the two task-independent networks, we employed GAT graph-analysis toolbox Hosseini et al. Brain networks have been shown to follow a specific topology known as small-worldness—an architecture that facilitates Biswal KF-3802 synchronization and efficient information transfer Bullmore and Sporns Download the latest Biswal KM device Biswal KF-3802 (Official and Certified).

About The Author: Jay Geater is the President and CEO of Solvusoft Corporation. Download the latest Biswal Mouse device drivers (Official and Certified). About The Author: Jay Geater is the President and CEO of Solvusoft Corporation.

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