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The notion of being observed and evaluated while performing has also been reported to be associated with increased electrophysiological responses to errors, likely due to increased error significance Surprisingly, Ame CF-2000 Webcam presence of an audience affects UG performance has not yet been systematically investigated.
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In previous studies that included an additional party in the UG, this party was an - often inactive - third player or a punishing party rather than a designated observer e. From a theoretical standpoint, two scenarios are conceivable: One of the aims of the present study was therefore to clarify the effect of social observation on behavioral performance of the UG. Aside from allowing investigation of behavioral aspects of social decision making, the UG can also provide insight into the neural mechanisms underlying fairness processing.
Several studies have used electroencephalography EEG and event-related potentials ERPs to investigate brain responses to fair and unfair offers in the UG. A medial frontal negativity occurring approximately to ms after offer presentation was more pronounced for unfair as compared to fair offers, an effect that was stronger in subjects with high fairness concerns This medial frontal negativity can also be interpreted as manifestation of feedback-related negativity FRNan ERP component typically assessed in response to performance feedback 2223 Several studies have corroborated fairness coding in the FRN time-locked to offer presentation in the UG e. Interestingly, the offer-locked FRN has also been shown to predict the decision to reject unfair offers 25 and may be modulated by the relationship between proposer and observer In addition to the FRN, the offer-locked P3, a later relative positivity in the ERP which has been linked to stimulus evaluation and decision processes 2829 and later, integrative stages of feedback processing that allow for coding of outcome ambivalence 30may also code for fairness Moreover, the P3 appears to be sensitive to social exclusion Intriguingly, individual differences have been shown to affect behavioral and neural responses in the UG.
Previous studies have reported altered acceptance rates of unfair human- or computer-proposed as well as altered fairness coding in FRN and P3 in individuals with high trait anxiety, with self-esteem and impulsivity but not depression as potential moderating factors 4 State happiness has been associated with increased acceptance of unfair offers Moreover, high trait negative affect has been shown to modulate FRN and P3b, potentially reflecting increased rumination and decreased motivation Previous electrophysiological UG studies have focused on offer-locked ERPs and thus neural responses to cues signaling potential outcomes, given that subjects had to accept the offers before obtaining any points.
However, the FRN is typically measured time-locked to outcome presentation, thereby also coding for reward prediction errors e. While the outcome following a response is fully predictable Ame CF-2000 Webcam the classic UG, it is still conceivable that neural responses to both offer and outcome are modulated by factors such as fairness, proposer identity, and social context. Indeed, social observation in the UG may shift emphasis and thus attention and salience to the feedback phase of each trial, given that there is not very much to see for the observer during offer presentation because at that point the subject has not yet responded.
Therefore the present study aimed to investigate the impact of fairness, proposer identity, and social observation on both offer- and feedback-locked neural responses. The present study used an EEG-adaptation of the classic UG task in order to assess audience Ame CF-2000 Webcam on brain responses and behavior as a function of fairness fair versus unfair offersoffer source human or computerand inter-interindividual differences. With regard to the latter, audience effects should be particularly relevant to individuals with higher levels of social anxiety, given that fear of negative evaluation and rejection in social situations are key characteristics of social anxiety.
Therefore, the relationship between social anxiety and altered UG performance and neural responses under social observation was also explored. Both offer- and feedback-locked neural responses FRN, P3 were assessed.
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Acceptance Ame CF-2000 Webcam were expected to be lower for unfair than for fair offers 234an effect that could be either enhanced or reduced under social observation, depending on whether audience effects would shift the focus on task instructions or implicit social norms. With regard to neural responses, it was hypothesized that FRN and P3 in the offer- and feedback-locked ERPs would be sensitive to fairness and offer source, with increased FRN amplitudes for unfair as compared to fair offers, and increased P3 to human as compared to computer offers 4. Moreover, in view of altered coding of feedback valence in the FRN and P3 in the presence of an observer 34social observation was expected to augment fairness coding in FRN and P3.
Last, it was hypothesized that higher levels of social anxiety would be associated with more pronounced effects of observation on behavior and ERPs. Methods Subjects Thirty-four healthy adult volunteers 10 Ame CF-2000 Webcam, 24 female participated in the present study.
Exclusion criteria were current or past neurological or psychiatric disorders Ame CF-2000 Webcam history of head trauma or unconsciousness. Mean age was Thirty subjects were right- and two were left-handed as determined by self-report. Since previous research has indicated that ultimatum game performance and feedback processing is modulated by trait anxiety 412and because the present task specifically involved a manipulation of social context see belowsubjects also completed the German version of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale LSAS; German version 35 in order to determine individual levels of social anxiety.
Avoidance and anxiety scores are added for a LSAS total score. Mean LSAS total score was Along these lines, the present sample presented with mild to no social anxiety. Mean BDI Ame CF-2000 Webcam was 2.
Processing of fair and unfair offers in the ultimatum game under social observation
Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects prior to participation. Furthermore, EEG data from one subject were excluded post-hoc due to off-label use of beta blockers, EEG data from two other subjects still contained artifacts after extensive preprocessing and were thus excluded, and EEG data from five other subjects had to be excluded because Ame CF-2000 Webcam than five trials were available for averaging in at least one condition.
Experimental task The experimental task was a variant of the classic UG 1 and adapted from previous electrophysiological studies 4 From business plans or developing a new website, its robust mind maps have all the features you need to accomplish your The game is in a closed beta, meaning you have to download it from a special linkhere and the developers are still ironingDownload the latest AME Optimedia Technology Co Webcam device drivers (Official and Ame CF-2000 Webcam. PC Camera CF · AME USB Camera. Ver Download the latest AME Group Webcam device drivers (Official and Certified). AME Group Webcam drivers updated daily. Download Now.